Birds of Passage – pathological Modernity meets Tradition’s honor code


Birds of Passage / (Pájaros de verano) – a film that keeps giving.

A gripping, “richly textured” case study of Modernity swallowing Tradition.

Spotlights impact on a resourceful traditional people in Colombia.

But of pathological Modernity, a criminal mutation.

Then the violence is propelled to almost Monty Pythonesque extremes by the tribal honor code.


The nub…

  • This is a superb nuanced film exploring perhaps the single greatest socio-political issue of our times [no not climate change]: Modernity swallowing Tradition.
  • But it’s a jaundiced take because here Modernity arrives in late 1960s Colombia as violent criminal drug trafficking to feed US demand, precisely an example of how not to “modernize”.
  • Then ironically the violence – triggered by volatile young men – is propelled relentlessly by the Wayuu people’s “payback” honor code till it consumes them, to a mindless extent that borders on Monty Python, like the Holy Grail’s [1975] famous Black Knight.

The pedantic nub…

  • Modernity and Tradition are inherently incompatible, inconsistent, contradictory, utterly. The rise, emergence of Modernity will swallow, swamp Tradition.
  • Birds of Passage [Pájaros de verano] is a case study on aspects of the collision of Modernity with Tradition, for which the old European story of Dr Faustus was an allegory, adapting the religious foundation of Christianity. Thus Satan offers Man Knowledge but in return for his soul [ie abandoning religious fairy stories].
  • Later [1818] the same allegory was transposed improbably by the young Mary Wollstonecraft into In the updated Faustian bargain, from Modernity through freedom we gain Knowledge, technology, thence prosperity, health and longevity.
  • But we lose forever the ageless predictable certainties of Tradition [Old Identity Values, compounded especially of religion and hierarchical group authority.
  • So for most people it meant no vote or beach holidays, poverty, violence and a short life, but also no comforting religious arm chair, no beer and skittles in the life thereafter.
  • However, at the heart of Modernity is competitive freedom, by individuals and groups, so – crucially important for an optimum collective outcome – this freedom must be constrained by considerations of others, meaning “responsible” freedom, achieved through firm liberal transparent, democratic institutions, property rights, rule of law, and, above all, overseen by strong government.
  • Precisely what we see advertised by deadly Iraq street protest by frustrated youth, September 2019.
  • In Frankenstein the Doc [Victor] doesn’t take responsibility for his creation, allow him to be fully human, so the frustrated “Monster” takes murderous revenge.
  • Similarly in this film Modernity arrives pathologically, arrives from the skies as criminal “irresponsible” freedom, with sadly catastrophic consequences for the traditional tribal family.
  • However the film shows both sides, how then the violence which eventually consumes the subject Wayuu people is triggered [as usual?] by volatile short-fused men, but is then propelled relentlessly to a destructive climax by the ethnic group’s eye for an eye honor code, a payback system common among indigenous peoples across the globe.
  • The final mindless cataclysm – when Anibal spends his last reserves on “help” from Medellin – recalls the darkly comic Black Knight in Monty Python’s 1975 Holy Grail.


  • The film pays revisiting, works on many levels, has been carefully crafted in every respect, the nuanced story apparently drawing on real life Colombia across a generation from the late 1960s, the story structured Homer style to fit a traditional song, the sustained powerful acting, the complimentary music, the speaks for itself scenery.


The take…

Many and various.

  • Be careful starting wars? Thus remember August 1914.
  • Lock up your madmen!
  • Say “No to Communism!”? Or beware “capitalism”? Yes, here we get closer to the story. Though the film of course has nothing to do with authentic “capitalism”.
  • So ultimately, at the highest level, Pájaros de verano is a film about one story from the mighty canvas of Tradition meeting Modernity, with competitive individual freedom, here – in a north Colombian coastal desert – timeless tribal life colliding with a pathological Modernity that arrives from the skies as perverted criminal behaviour caused by a failure elsewhere [USA], ie government failure to restrain exercise of freedom for the collective good.
  • So the film is a gripping, “richly textured” case study from the single greatest socio-political issue of our times, of recent centuries: of Modernity meeting Tradition, where the individual is tightly constrained by the rules of the group, compounded especially of religion and tribal politics, hierarchical group authority.
  • Interesting is that the sequence of violence is triggered by volatile individuals [Moisies and Leonidas] going off script, but is then propelled relentlessly, mindlessly to a frightful climax by the traditional eye for an eye / payback honor code, common across the globe among traditional societies, ef the Mafia and in PNG.


  • Modernity at heart is about the liberation of the individual, about freedom to create, explore, innovate, to indulge the imagination.
  • At the heart of this freedom, in turn, is competition, as it is at the heart of much of the natural living world.
  • But – hugely important – to achieve the optimum collective social outcome this freedom must be exercised “responsibly”, reflect the social context, thus recognize mutually agreed, negotiated constraints.
  • In “Western” liberal democracy this is achieved through an effective democratic process, human rights, property rights, rule of law, but, above all, anchored by strong government.
  • The Mediaeval European Faustian story is an outstanding allegory for Modernity – the modern world, the modern liberal order – in posing the fateful bargain: accept Modernity and we gain freedom to indulge our individual ambition, curiosity, imagination, freedom to explore, create, innovate. So we gain knowledge, hence health and prosperity [dentists, leisure and truffles], and this for the multitude, on an historically unparalleled scale.
  • But in return we give up Tradition, the timeless predictable certainties. Yes we keep souvenirs, memories, mementoes, reminders, but the traditional authority system dissolves.


The rhyming, references…

Yes it has an Homeric feel, the epic tale sung by the blind herder, the blind Song Man bookending the film, the tale told as a traditional Wayuu song, in five jayeechi, cantos.

If there is family, there is respect; if there is respect there is honor; if there is honor, there is the word; if there is the word, then there is peace”.

So it refers too to timeless themes explored by old Greek tragedy, cataclysmic intra tribal warfare triggered by random madmen actions, like Sarajevo in August 1914.

And yes the film recalls the American crime movies, the Godfather? The tribal criminal behaviour of the Mafia.



The Wayuu are an indigenous ethnic group, a traditional people, numbering over 400,000, in the area of La Guijara Desert, in Colombia and Venezuela, the group knitted by ritual, ancestor beliefs the haruspicatory communications of birds, all the workings of ”cultural memory”, like funerary rites, saluting ancestors, the cleaning and re-interment of bones.

Veracity. Is the film true to life? Or is history adapted here?


The tale…

A tribe or people, the Wayuu [1], inhabit a patch of desert in NE Colombian, La Guajira Desert, poking into the Atlantic, beside Venezuela to the east.

They meet criminal ambition when one of their own, “corrupted” by contact with Outside World [like the alijunas [literally “the one who damages”], outsiders in Colombia], one Rapayet [introduced by uncle [or his father’s cousin?] Peregrino, a “word messenger”, a palabrero] returns, in 1968.

He arrives at the coming out [the chichamaya ritual] for Zaida, daughter of matriarchal Ursula [protector of the well off Pushainas clan, keeper of traditions, like listening to the divinatory messaging of the birds].

He pins the girl, painted and enrobed, after she doth entrance him, dancing the yonna [the Angry Chook].

The well meaning but ill informed R offends the W honor code, “offers [Z] a tuma necklace, which is a disrespectful and inappropriate gesture met with scorn..”.

The wary U, suspicious of ambitious men contaminated by the OW, discourages him by setting the dowry bar high.

But that only impels R to try harder, working with his random “nowhere man” close mate, the reckless decadent Moises. After a chance cross with dope smoking US Peace Corps youth they move up from coffee trading to marijuana trafficking.

But they need supply, so approach the cold all-business Anibal [R’s uncle? Or U’s cousin?}, at his secluded ranch in foothills nearby, who agrees to co-operate, at a price.

Business becomes good, but wild man M kills a couple Americans arrived by small plane to fetch produce, after learning the Americans are dealing elsewhere too.

This upsets A. M reoffends and R is forced to kill him, his old mate.

Much later the second unstable madman is Leonidas, son of R and Z. He insults A’s daughter at the ranch and A demands apology, submission. L reluctantly agrees but his hormones get the better and now he assaults her by the pool.

Oh dear. Now it’s WAR. A starts by killing Peregrino, the WM, when he arrives in a desperate effort to avoid cataclysm.

Killing a WM is very bad form and U musters her forces, makes a big hit on A.

But A and his right hand man survive, and A spends his stashed last savings on “Help” from Medellin, who arrive and raze U’s improbable desert family compound, funded by R.

A tracks down R and kills him. L is someplace else, hiding in a woman’s hut.

R and Z daughter Indira is the only apparent survivor, and film ends as she buys a few goats off the Homeric Song Man, also a farmer.

Earlier we see U’s mother, an old lady, walking along dead train track, straight towards the sea.


The bright but noxious Martin Heidegger

The bright but noxious Martin Heidegger.

  • Heidegger’s hands on incisive philosophy in Being and Time works fine by itself.
  • But, contemplating Dasein he transposed it into a loathing of liberal modernity.
  • And practical support for a virulently racist, murderous, Anti-Semitic dictatorship.
  • Ironically, if he only listened, his thought speaks well in coping with modernity.

The MAN……

Martin Heidegger [1889-1976] was raised in small town conservative rural Germany and never left.

He hated cities, and technology, and liberal modernity. The whole shooting match, which he [correctly] blamed on – and never forgave them for it – the Anglo-Saxons, aided by the Jews, those ever “rootless” agents of modernity.

Though there’s a twist. The “Anglo-Saxons” far back hailed from where? Yes they escaped the main arena for a peripheral moated retreat and that made all the difference.

There they could fashion their own portentous edifice with some protection from marauding kings and priests.

In his unfinished Being and Time [1927] Heidegger sketched an appealing cut through philosophy.

No man is an island, all inhabit an inescapable social context;

Disregard mundane distraction, the “chatter”. Remember to live, think for yourself, to be free;

Find authenticity through facing “being-towards-death”.

But Heidegger then crossed from the world of ideas to contemporary politics, apparently passing Dasein through some historicist prism [which may have referred back to Hegel?] and thus transposing his philosophy into a noxious political platform.

So he became gripped by an animus towards liberal modernity through his primal affection for traditional connectedness, his nationalistic “Rootedness-in-soil” [Bodenstandgigkeit], which was also a keystone for fascist Germany’s visceral, virulent nationalism, which Heidegger duly signed up for.

So his was a hands on practical loathing of democracy and liberal modernity.

No mistake where he stood. “..  in the wake of the postwar Allied Tribunal at Nuremberg, Heidegger writes that the “thoughtlessness” of the Western powers “exceeds by many thousand degrees the irresponsible, dreadful trade with which Hitler raged around Europe.” “ 

“…We also find repeated claims about German exceptionalism and greatness…  beyond mere Heidegger claims “only the German can say and poetize being in a new, originary way.“… What emerges .. is a vision of Germany’s vocation as the only possible hope for “saving the West.” ..the loss of the war… the extermination camps.. none of these ..alter Heidegger’s faith in the chosen status of the Germans to save the West from an apocalyptic collapse. “ [C. Bambach].

Thus was anti-semitism integral to his views [“the residue of a rural Messkirchian Weltanschauung] such that he at least indirectly supported the mass murder of the Jews.

So he saw Jews as “rootless agents of modernity”, facilitators of the nightmare which consumed them, through “modernity’s” attack on righteous illiberal Germany, and even through the technology of their extirpation.

He wrote: “One of the most secret forms of the gigantic, and perhaps the oldest, is the tenacious skillfulness in calculating, hustling, and intermingling through which the worldlessness of Jewry is grounded.” [Open Culture].

Thus Heidegger wrote, “the question concerning the role of world Jewry is not a racial question, but a metaphysical one“.  [S. Earle].

And this sits within “a schema of Western history as destinal errancy”, ie within “his overall interpretation of a modernity whose “essence is directed toward the unleashing of the entire globe’s machination.” “. [C. Bambach].

Meanwhile he did his bit through ”denunciations of his [Jewish] colleagues and students”.

So of course it was “racial”.



His 1927 magnum opus “Being and Time” concerns the “fundamental concept of ontology”, being, starts with recognising the primal importance of understanding Da-sein [“there-being”], Being-There, Existence.

He arrived here via Husserl’s work on phenomenology [3].

This is essential as a basis for living “authentic” lives, and indeed for all subsequent contemplation, whether of tonight’s dinner menu or career choice or the meaning of life.

For him this bedrock matter had been dodged by all since the Greek Pre Socratics. Hence his Destruktion of this prior thought, to prepare soil for him.

Essentially Being is Time. So Being is approached through grasping time.

His thought can be conveyed through the Dasein Care Structure:

1/ Facticity. – the given. Our lot. Our dealt hand.

We are tossed, thrown into life, with givens, no choice but to deal with this Thrownness [Gwerfenheit].

A primary given is that all being is connected, we and world are one, are interdependent.

So the human individual is not a solitary subject, rather subject and object are not separate, as they are in language.

So every experience comes with a social context, cannot be separated.

We are never neutral, detached observers. We are in and of the world but never neutrally.

2/ Fallenness [Fehlbarkheit] – succumbing to distraction, the “chatter”.

Here, Being-in-the-world [In der Welt sein], we forget to notice we are alive, to face the ‘mystery of existence’. We forget to be free.

We fall, eye off the ball, distracted by chatter[Das Gerede].

We suffer from “diseases of the soul”, Forgetfulness of Being [Seinsvergessenheit].

But we sometimes become aware of this psychic pathology, meet a call to pause and think, are jolted into odd moments of clarity, of “conscience”, when we notice the “uncanny strangeness of everything” / Unheimlich die Fremdheit von allen” , the seltsamalles [‘strange all’].

Like when struck by trauma or illness, or strange encounters with others.

Some connect this odd sense of calling with religion where people sense they are “called” by a deity, eg Paul, Augustine, Luther, Hank Williams.

But for Heidegger the call is not from God, it’s “me talking to me”, waking up / aufwachen, a call to rise above the “chatter” and face mortality.

But then, crucially for MH, fatefully, he leaves the ivory tower and relates, applies his thought to contemporary history, thus sees modernity [Western liberal values, including democracy] as epitomising Fallenness, as inauthentic [Unecht], including through unleashing technology, brought by Prometheus from the gods.

3/ Existentiality / Projection. (Entwurf) / Freedom [Freiheit] – find the door now [Finde jetzt die Tur].

We need to pursue our “deeper potentials”, become hands on to pursue our potentiality-for- being (Seinkönnen, literally “could be”), to find Authenticity [Eigentlichtkeit[].

The time to do so is now. Be alive now.

Find freedom [Freiheit] through “projection” (Entwurf), throwing off.

Triggered by ‘anxiety’ / angst [different to fear, which has a specific subject] which can become a window on the ‘authentic’ self.

The project is to unite the subjective and objective, and especially through confronting mortality, death, finitude, Das Nicht.

So ironically this “being-towards-death” / Sein-zum-Tode, this engaging death, is liberating.

[Note: Heidegger stresses importance of the individual’s death. Some object this is “both false and morally pernicious”, rather that death comes into our world through the deaths of others”.]

But the seeking is like taking a torch into a dark room, so the visible “objective” is only a small part of what’s in the room.

Understanding of being (Seinsverständnis) proceeds “by referring to particular beings”, seeking aletheia [unconcealment / discovery, idea from Greek Pre-Socratic, Parmenides] through the Hermeneutic Circle, repeated passes.

Temporality [philosophical nature of time] for Heidegger was “the unity of the three dimensions of future, past and present”.

Thus we bring to now – to the “the moment of vision” (Augenblick)both our having-been-ness” (Gewesenheit) and our being-towards-death / Sein-zum-Tode.

He left unfinished his mulling of temporality.


Given Heidegger’s pathological distaste for modernity it’s darkly ironic that his simple messages from Being and Time are certainly apposite in coping with the exigencies of modernity, not least the relentless change and the “chatter”.



Born in small rural conservative Messkirch in Baden Wurttemberg. Son of church sexton. Jesuit seminary. “Short and sinewy”, skied.

Studied theology at Freiburg [1909], then philosophy [1911], cf Husserl. Served last year WW1. Professor at Marburg 1923-28, there developed his Being ideas, in his lectures, starting with Aristotle, published in 1927 Being and Time [437 pp] to help his 1928 return to Freiburg, to replace Husserl there, where he stayed rest of his working life.

Late 1930s he published his second main work, Contributions to Philosophy [1936-37].

Rector of University at Freiburg 1933, joined NSWP [Nazis]. Rector till 1934, but stayed in the Nazi Party till 1945.

His Nazi relations were a problem. He was “not only a member of the Nazi Party, but “enthusiastic” about participating… wanted to position himself as the philosopher of the Party, but the highly abstract nature of his work and the opposition of A Rosenberg..  limited Heidegger’s role” (Richard Evans].

After WW2 he was “denazified” by the French and allowed to resume teaching, was granted emeritus status and then taught regularly from 1951 until 1958, and by invitation until 1967.



1/ Being and Time. 1927, ie age 38. Comprises lengthy two-part introduction, followed by Division One, the “Preparatory Fundamental Analysis of Dasein,” and Division Two, “Dasein and Temporality.”

This is part one of an intended two parts. “It was meant to have two parts, each of which was supposed to be divided into three divisions.”

His interest in subject triggered by Franz Brentano’s “Meaning of Being etc according to Aristotle.” [1862].


2/ His Black Notebooks, 1931-41 were finally published in 2014, containing ” expressions of anti-semitic sentiments..  re-evaluation of Heidegger’s relation to Nazism”.. eg Donatella di Cesare: ” ..”metaphysical anti-Semitism” and antipathy toward Jews.. central to Heidegger’s philosophical work“. He “considered Jewish people to be agents of modernity disfiguring the spirit of Western civilization.. held the Holocaust as.. logical result of the Jewish acceleration of technology, and thus blamed the Jewish genocide on its victims.“.

See also Andrew J. Mitchell and Peter Trawny (eds.), Heidegger’s Black Notebooks: Responses to Anti-Semitism, Columbia University Press, 2017, reviewed by Charles Bambach, University of Texas at Dallas, in Notre Dame Phil. Reviews, 19 Feb 2018


3/ Phenomenologystudies conscious experience / structures of consciousness.. as experienced from the subjective or first person point of view. …

The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object. ….

This field of philosophy is then to be distinguished from, and related to, the other main fields of philosophy: ontology (the study of being or what is), epistemology (the study of knowledge), logic (the study of valid reasoning), ethics (the study of right and wrong action), etc.” [Stanford Encyc. of Philosophy].

Many identities, but one world.


The answer to Racism? Yes “Un-racism”: a primary loyalty to universal liberal values not to any subset identity.


FEATURED: Norman Lewis, 1965, Unknown (March on Washington), 1965 Oil on fibreboard, private


Zora Neale Hurston, c1940


Ah “racism”?!

A ubiquitous issue within the contemporary zeitgeist, triggering a stream of fervent opinion [Eg Note 1.], much of it aggrieved and confrontational.

Yes it’s obviously a rotten business, through history, and in countless jurisdictions.

But racism and the West? How does the “West” face it now?

And how should “non-West”, “colored” people all, cope, react?


The West’s report card

Yes a rotten business, the West and slavery, especially of course the Atlantic Slave Trade and the wide extent of slave employing plantations in the Americas, in South and North America and the Caribbean.

Yes we are talking industrial scale slavery, over 10m shipped west to captive servitude [and perhaps a million who died en route?], a massive money-making “business” through applying Western competitive ingenuity, labor and capital to building an economy, with blacks as a key labor input.

Starting in the 16th C, soon after the fateful Spanish sanctioned landing by Columbus, from c1600 it became big time and yes – in an extraordinary, mind boggling final dark hurrah – it continued well into the 19th C in the newly independent US, on a staggering scale, the slave population erupting from c600k [about 20% of total population] at independence in the 1780s to near 4m by 1860 when the North finally decided to fight, to keep the Union. But even that frightful war – apparently “won” by the slave-emancipating North – didn’t address the problem, the injustice. The racist South resurged, condoned by the North, and another century of racial oppression and violence beckoned.

And yes for most involved in slavery, directly and indirectly, it was built on racist notions of blacks, either inherently / genetically, as a separate inferior human species, or, in a softer patronising take, as primitive but salvageable, capable in time, with care and instruction, of being “civilised”.

Thus the latter understanding [encapsulated by Kipling’s phrase, c1900, the White Man’s Burden] informed most European imperialism, also in Africa and Asia.

Britain was more deeply involved in the Atlantic Slave Trade, and in slave plantations in the Americas than many realise, especially after c 1700, through the 13 Colonies until they broke free but also through Caribbean territories, which they did not emancipate till 1838.

However the issue has pervaded, dogged, informed this unique nation of the USA to this day, obviously because of the report card but also because the ruling mainstream has long dragged its heels in facing the country’s past honestly.

So, while admitting to regretful errors, much of the deeply patriotic mainstream still clings doggedly to a rose coloured picture of a nation epitomising, defined mainly by idealistic precious notions of liberty and freedom, underplaying the extent to which these heady ideals were brutally compromised, contradicted by near two centuries of its domestic history.

Yes it sacrificed some ‘best and brightest’ in two world wars centred on Europe, helping to bring obvious illiberal tyranny to heel. Then after WW2 it had to take responsibility withstanding a Soviet Russia which helped itself to “liberated” East Europe, and a Maoist China which backed N Korea in a war against the South.

But all the while, till well after WW2, its domestic treatment of blacks remained shameful.

The matter is important not just within US borders but because the US, for better or worse, remains the leading “Western” nation, behoving it to set an example.

Among other Western nations the issue is important too in Australia and Canada, in both instances, like the US, where incoming European settlers interacted with long resident indigenous or “First Nation” peoples.


How should the racially abused “colored” people respond now?

Above all the “afflicted” groups must face the wider truths, beyond the West’s report card.


A / Face the wider truth….. acknowledge the emergence of modern liberal values in the West.

First the “afflicted” groups must face the ironic if confronting reality that the same West which gorged on slavery in the Americas [and which also misbehaved “racistly” on a significant scale in Africa and Asia] also gave the world the universalist “modern liberal order”, “Western” values, a system of thought and practice which has proved historically unparalleled in delivering prosperity and meaningful freedoms to its people.

Also these values when expressed authentically are utterly “anti-racist”, are racially neutral or blind, do not formally recognise any races.

They’re called “Western” because they arose in the West [mainly from England, but with clear relevant ancestry which goes back to Classical Greece], but are now “Western”, not just Western, because the practical application of the ideas has spread beyond the original West, especially to parts of Asia, and the Americas beyond US and Canada, if less so to Africa and the Mid East.

This has happened to the extent that the “Western” liberal model – of government regulated freedom / democracy / rule of law – is now widely accepted among all major global institutions, and is opposed only by obvious illiberal antagonists like China, Russia and Iran etc.

Though of course China, c 1980, in seeking to reform, to recover from the disastrous Maoist regime, turned to “Western” economic practice, allowing private property and markets, and with great success. Though it has stayed with domestic political repression.

So the open eyed, meritocratic, competitive energy which uncovered, adumbrated universal ideas of freedom, tolerance and individual rights, and practices of democracy and rule of law, also expressed as buoyant economic growth, in rising productive agriculture, in burgeoning education, cities and industry, and then [in flagrant contradiction of its “modern” values] also expressed as large scale offshore predatory “imperialist” economic activity, including slavery, ie in a return to traditional values.

This is understandably bitter nourishment for many feeling aggrieved by illiberal Western behaviour, ie that the “answer” to racism comes from the same Western “culture” which indulged it so keenly, on such a scale.


B/ ….. and the non-West’s report card.

Second, it means facing that traditionally near all non-Western cultures, including black peoples in Africa, were also often / usually “racist” in their domestic and foreign affairs, many also resorting to slavery.

Indeed of course it was other African people who rounded up the slaves which the Western countries like Spain and Britain bought and on sold in the Americas.

The difference with the West is that the latter’s pronounced post 16th C Renaissance economic success enabled it to practice “racist” economic activity on a far greater – and geographically wider – scale.

Talking conditions in today’s world we should remember that two major countries – China and Russia – remain staunchly committed to traditional non-Western values, both illiberal dictatorships, both obvious opponents of the liberal “Western” global order in their public opinions and their antagonistic behaviour.

In this antagonism they are joined by some Islamist dictatorships, like Iran.

All these countries reject liberal democracy, run oppressive domestic regimes with no meaningful freedom of expression, democracy and rule of law.

Finally although many European countries indulged in “empires”, more or less, and with mixed results, or worse, in many / most cases the independent countries born from subsequently released colonies have performed badly – sometimes very badly – in terms of economic and political outcomes, prosperity and freedom.


C/ ….. avoid particular “identity” overriding the “universal”.

Third, by far the best approach today for descendants of “racism”, or even those directly hurt by it, is to internalise the wider truth, including the relevance of universalist liberal values, and act accordingly.

So this indeed means – adopting Mt Kendi’s syntax – being an “anti-racist”, or “unracist”, in that one’s primary loyalty [identity] should not be to any “race” or other traditional identity – defined broadly, as any racial or ethnic or national or religious or even gender entity, which we can box up as Old Identity Values [OIV] – but rather to all fellow humankind and to liberal universalist values, to the modern liberal values [MLV] which underwrite this loyalty.

So above all this means living essentially in the present not the past, so particularly it means rising above, avoiding any primary life informing notion as a victim or descendant of victims, by not harbouring a primary affiliation with a perceived aggrieved group.

Ironically choosing to live primarily by loyalty to a traditional identity [like race] is by its nature “racist”, being based on loyalty to some subset identity above overarching humankind.

Some black US cultural figures seem to understand, have understood this matter, like writer Zora Neale Hurston [1] [1891-1960] and painter Norman Lewis [2] [1909-79].

Both [among many others?] were observers, “victims”, of racial injustice – could hardly fail to be given their chronology – and both reflected this harsh reality in some of their work, but evidently both also saw themselves as exemplars of humankind first, ahead of “black” or any other affiliation.

This “universalist” approach does not deny the validity or worth of assorted identities or loyalties defined by ethnic, nationalistic religious or gender or other associations, rather suggests that none of these identities has special rights, including a right to impose itself – one way or another – on any other.



1/ Fighting Racism Even, and Especially, Where We Don’t Realize It Exists, by Jeffrey C. Stewart, NY Times, Aug. 20, 2019. [Review of HOW TO BE AN ANTIRACIST, Ibram X. Kendi, 305 pp. One World].


“For Kendi, the founding director of the Antiracist Research and Policy Center at American University, there are no nonracists; there are only racists — people who allow racist ideas to proliferate without opposition — and antiracists, those who expose and eradicate such ideas wherever they encounter them.”


“Sometimes the logic of antiracism threatens to erase some of the nuances of African-American history. Kendi quotes the 19th-century African-American thinker Alexander Crummell, who declared that the genius of black people in America was their gift at assimilating American — read white American — culture. Kendi rightly notes that such statements can advance the dominant culture’s demand that black people mimic white people in order to be recognized as equally human.

This assimilationist discourse, as wielded by such figures as W. E. B. Du Bois, who criticized both black working-class culture and the racism that deprived black communities of opportunities and respect, or C. Delores Tucker, an activist who denigrated rappers as threatening the moral foundation of black communities implies we are not good enough on our own, but must constantly emulate white people in order to be accepted.

But, buried within a racialized assimilationist rhetoric, Crummell might have been voicing an important truth: that the African-American mastery and transformation of Anglo-American culture — its language, behaviors, values and arts — is one of the greatest accomplishments in world history. Spirituals arose because enslaved Africans assimilated English hymns and made them their own. Assimilating, in this sense, is a verb, a choice, not a bow to the superiority of another culture.”


2/ Zora Neale Hurston. Hurston was a powerful writer, but also in her younger adult life worked with important pioneering “anti-racist” German born Frank Boas [1858-1942] at Columbia University in NY, who led a pathbreaking rejection of the idea of inherent / genetic variation in the capabilities of different races or ethnic groups, thus challenging a long and pronounced, entrenched tradition of scientific racism, including eugenics, reflected both in mass slavery and the Nazi extermination program.


3/ Painter Norman Lewis in his works left some powerful polemical swipes at racism, US white supremacism, racial violence [including lynching, in his lifetime], particularly c1960 as the Civil Rights movement gathered momentum, but from his writings clearly he wished to be recognised as a painter first and as a black painter somewhere after that.

Much of his later work [from the mid 1940s] was abstract or quasi-abstract [thus he is recognised as part of the post WW2 New York Abstract Expressionist movement, if far less famous than Pollock and Rothko] and perhaps his shift to abstraction was a reaction to coping with race prejudice.




Bizarre servings by Professor Losurdo

At least “western imperial universalism” gave the world liberal modernity!

Bizarre servings by Professor Losurdo.


  • Blames WW1 on the Anglo-Saxon “imperialist universalists”?!
  • So Germany was the hapless victim of the crusading democrats.
  • The bright but bumpkin Martin Heidegger, contemplating Das Nicht, transposed his useful philosophy into practical support for a virulently racist, murderous, Anti-Semitic dictatorship.


What bizarre March 2014 commentary [2] by Professor Losurdo, teaming up with Herr Heidegger and sinking the boot into Anglo Saxon “imperial universalism”.

First he tries to share the blame for Hitler and Nazism with the US because that country harboured fellow travellers like Henry Ford. Well for that matter so did Britain and France and Netherlands and the Nordic countries.

Next the hapless Napoleon III of France is fingered for “waging war” against Prussia in 1870 in the name of “democracy”. Well it is pretty rich to talk of France then as anything like a democracy. And for that war most historians instead blame a certain wily chap in Prussia cum Germany.

But third, his imagination goes wild in blaming the “entente powers” [France and the dreaded Anglo-Saxons, ie Britain and the US] for the 1914-18 war [also known as World War 1], again waged by them in the name of “democracy”.

This is preposterous.

WW1 would not have happened but for belligerent reactionary anti-democratic Germany backing the hapless Austro-Hungarian Empire in their mindless, suicidal gambit to confront and discipline rebellious Serbia.

But no the Professor sees poor old Germany instead as a victim of the Anglo-Saxon “imperial universalism” of Britain, also France, also known as “universal interventionism”, which apparently then “explains the aggressive, reactionary anti-universalism in Germany..

So in a logical sleight of hand Germany becomes the victim not the instigator?!

Finally, fourth, in his last sentence is the eye -watering nonsensical, statement that while Germany’s “aggressive, reactionary anti-universalism [has] much to answer… it does not in any way absolve western imperial universalism of its own responsibility and crimes.

Well Professor, at least Britain and the Anglo-Saxon push gave the world liberal modernity, modern liberal values, “western …universalism”! Yes these forces of darkness gave the world full franchise representative democracy, the rule of law, and human rights, including meaningful free speech.

Yes there were major “crimes”, not least the Atlantic slave trade, in which much of Europe was complicit, but especially Spain and Portugal, then Britain and its American [13] Colonies.

Racism also led the US into its calamitous self-inflicted Civil War [which still didn’t solve the problem] and various European countries into unseemly imperial intervention in Africa and Asia.

But the blunt reality is that it was traditional, reactionary, illiberal anti-democratic behaviour – in awe of a mix of old identity values [OIV] like, compounded of race and place and religion – which triggered the maelstrom of 20th C violence, like the “aggressive, reactionary“ Germanic axis occasioning appalling violence in two world wars, a tragic corollary of which was the Russian Revolution, spawning a second totalitarian dictatorship, and a third if the second helped bring forth the Maoist dictatorship.


Meanwhile the tragedy of the bright but narrow minded philosopher Martin Heidegger [subject of the Professor’s article] is that he transposed his perfectly sensible philosophical scheme [ie open your eyes, no man is an island, try thinking for yourself] into a practical loathing of modernity on the one hand, ie a loathing of Anglo Saxon liberal democracy [and also the prosperity enabling technological take off it triggered], and on the other into support for the visceral murderous racist nationalism of his country Germany

So accordingly he displayed a principled commitment to anti-Semitism, disliking Jews especially as “rootless agents of modernity.


Note: 1/ Domenico Losurdo is professor of philosophy at the University of Urbino, Italy. He is the author of many books in Italian, German, French and Spanish. In English he has published Hegel and the Freedom of Moderns and Heidegger and the Ideology of War. His latest book is Liberalism: A Counter-History (Verso Books)

Note: 2/ Heidegger’s black notebooks aren’t that surprising: Scholars already knew the German philosopher signed up to the Nazi party. But that doesn’t mean nothing can be learned from his thinking. Domenico Losurdo, Guardian, Thu 20 Mar 2014



The “Western” liberal model is here to stay.

The “Western” liberal model is here to stay.

Like Newton’s Laws

The triumph of [Western] universalism has come just when Western power is collapsing

Robert Skidelsky, a member of the British House of Lords, is Professor Emeritus of Political Economy at Warwick University.

This is a big call by an ‘eminent’ economist:

  • basically calling an end to “Western” liberal democracy, to the modern liberal project.
  • and a resurgence in non-US/European loyalty to Old Identity Values.

He’s either right or wrong.

Very likely the latter for the simple reason that the “Western” model works. It delivers.

It’s only called “Western” because that’s where it emerged, for whatever reason.

But it’s no more “Western” than Newtons Laws.

It is universally relevant as the demonstrated optimum model for economic and political outcomes.


Modern Liberal Values


Paul Klee [1879-1940], 1932, Ad Parnassum, tempera on linen, 100 x 126cm, Kunstmuseum Bern

Old Identity Values:      


Anonymous, c975, Letter by an angel to one of the Seven Churches [Revelations], Beatus de la Seu d’Urgell


 First, am sorry to read of Norman Stone’s death. What refreshingly interesting and entertaining – if also uneven and flawed – historian he was.

Lord Skidelsky’s scepticism about collective efforts to mathematicise the discipline of economics morphs into – or is seen as a subset of? – “the West.. [viewing].. itself as the bearer of the universal civilization, with the non-West no more than a lagging cultural indicator… [but this].. triumph of universalism has come just when Western power is collapsing….

“Collapsing”? That’s ridiculous, self evident hyperbole.

Broadly speaking the core Western liberal democracies comprise N America [minus Mexico], Europe and Australia / NZ, all subscribing more or less to a liberal international rules based order, and also sharing a common cultural background.

Secondly is a group of important countries [like India, Japan, some other Asian countries [even Indonesia] and some South American countries (some more than others)], all with different non-European cultural backdrops but each with a demonstrated meaningful [if varying] commitment to the liberal economic order.

Per contra, obvious opponents of the “Western” model, and its main protagonists, are China, Russia and Iran, plus a miscellany of smaller states.

In considering the “West’s” longer term outlook we should never forget – despite all the apparent “problems” – the simple single powerful reason for the West’s success: it works. Delivers.

Economically and politically.

And why? Simple. Freedom.

The model harnesses the competitive ambitions and capabilities of its citizens through rules and institutions underwriting government supervised responsible freedom.

The model is called “Western” but only because for whatever historic reasons, it emerged there.

And yes it does have universal relevance as an emphatically demonstrated optimum model for delivering economic and political outcomes [including expression of individual freedom].

But the West has no more proprietorial claim or attachment to it than it does over Newton’s Laws.

Looking ahead, the genie is unbottled and now – end of the day – the “Western” model, revealed practically as the supreme model for economic and political outcomes, will not go away.

The various authoritarian regimes defining themselves by one strand or other of the Old World, Old Identity Values, will persist, because some people fall for the glib promises and because the rulers exploit gullibility, and because they pay enough security services supporters from state coffers.

But fundamentally they will underperform economically.

Despite their belligerent bluster Russia and Iran are both inherently weak, indulging in military chest beating their weak economies can hardly afford.

China is more interesting.

After the murderous Maoist shambles it finally recognised the economic potential of the Western model and c1980 consequently undertook a policy volte face, but only for the economy, keeping a firm lid on politics.

So far the turnaround in the Chinese economy has proved very successful, but given the resolute clamp on political freedoms [intensified under Xi], spilling over to the economy, it’s far from clear China’s future will be calm.

Longer term education is likely to chip away at – though never eradicate – remaining loyalty to Old Identity Values.

Cultural differences will remain, and be celebrated in their own way, but in countries more or less practicing the “Western” model they will not, by and large, be incorporated in legislated policies.



Fall of the Economists’ Empire, Jul 22, 2019, Project Syndicate, Robert Skidelsky.

The goal of economics is to replace the particular languages that obstruct the discovery of general laws with the universal language of mathematics. This is the apotheosis of a Western conceit that can no longer be sustained by Western power.

LONDON – The historian Norman Stone, who died in June, always insisted that history students learn foreign languages. Language gives access to a people’s culture, and culture to its history. Its history tells us how it sees itself and others. Knowledge of languages should thus be an essential component of a historian’s technical equipment. It is the key to understanding the past and future of international relations.1

But this belief in the fundamental importance of knowing particular languages has faded, even among historians. All social sciences, to a greater or lesser degree, start with a yearning for a universal language, into which they can fit such particulars as suit their view of things. Their model of knowledge thus aspires to the precision and generality of the natural sciences. Once we understand human behavior in terms of some universal and – crucially – ahistorical principle, we can aspire to control (and of course improve) it.

No social science has succumbed to this temptation more than economics.

Its favored universal language is mathematics. Its models of human behavior are built not on close observation, but on hypotheses that, if not quite plucked from the air, are unconsciously plucked from economists’ intellectual and political environments. These then form the premises of logical reasoning of the type, “All sheep are white, therefore the next sheep I meet will be white.” In economics: “All humans are rational utility maximizers. Therefore, in any situation, they will act in such a way as to maximize their utility.” This method gives economics a unique predictive power, especially as the utilities can all be expressed and manipulated quantitatively. It makes economics, in Paul Samuelson’s words, the “queen of the social sciences.”

In principle, economists don’t deny the need to test their conclusions. At this point, history, one might have thought, would be particularly useful. Is it really the case that all sheep are white, in every place and clime? But most economists disdain the “evidence” of history, regarding it as little better than anecdotage. They approach history by one route: econometrics. At best, the past is a field for statistical inquiry.

The economist Robert Solow offers a devastating critique of the identification of economic history with econometrics, or “history blind” as he calls it:

The best and brightest in the profession proceed as if economics is the physics of society. There is a single universally valid model. It only needs to be applied. You could drop a modern economist from a time machine … at any time, in any place, along with his or her personal computer; he or she could set up in business without even bothering to ask what time and which place.”

In short, much of the historical modeling economists do assumes that people in the past had essentially the same values and motives as we do today. The Nobel laureate economist Robert Lucas carries this approach to its logical conclusion: “the construction of a mechanical, artificial world, populated by … interacting robots …, that is capable of exhibiting behavior the gross features of which resemble those of the actual world.”

The goal of economics is to replace the particular languages that obstruct the discovery of general laws with the universal language of mathematics. Elon Musk takes Lucas’s interacting robots one step further, with his ambition to link the human brain directly to the world (which includes other human brains). Our thoughts will be directly socialized without the intermediation of any language. When you think “door, open!” it does. Whereas economists dream of putting God in their models, the robotic utopians dream of reversing the fall of man by creating godlike humans.

To be clear, this is the apotheosis of a Western conceit. The West still views itself as the bearer of universal civilization, with the non-West no more than a lagging cultural indicator. In the West itself, the authority of economics has diminished, but this hasn’t dented the West’s propensity to export its civilization. “Good economics” has been partly replaced by a commitment to universal human rights as the means to save the world from itself, but the purpose is the same: to lecture everyone else on their shortcomings.

Here, we encounter a paradox. The triumph of [Western] universalism has come just when Western power is collapsing.

And it was that power which made Western thought seem universal in the first place.

Conquest, not missionaries, spread Christianity around the world.

The same is true of Western social science and Western values in general.

The non-West bought into the Western model of progress, especially economic progress, because it wanted to free itself from Western tutelage. This still gives economics (a Western invention) its edge.

It’s a kind of white man’s magic.

But without the power and authority behind the magic, its appeal is bound to fade.

The non-West will still want to emulate the West’s success, but will pursue it by its own means.

The University of Chicago and MIT will give way to universities in China or India, and the non-West will choose which Western values to embrace.

Yet the world needs something universal to give us a sense of shared humanity.

The big challenge – to use that overworked word – is to develop what the philosopher Thomas Nagel called a “view from nowhere” that transcends both cultural fetishism and scientism, and does not force us to choose between them.

This is a task for philosophy, not economics.

Robert Skidelsky, a member of the British House of Lords, is Professor Emeritus of Political Economy at Warwick University. The author of a three-volume biography of John Maynard Keynes, he began his political career in the Labour party, became the Conservative Party’s spokesman for Treasury affairs in the House of Lords, and was eventually forced out of the Conservative Party for his opposition to NATO’s intervention in Kosovo in 1999

Adventure of Modern Liberal Values [MLV] ( cont’d.) – the Art Seen

The Adventure of Modern Liberal Values [MLV] ( continued)

– the Art Seen


Contemporary Art – funded by the global explosion in Annual Leave and Disposable Income.

Ah well, all this time and money.

So the story of most Contemporary “ART” is NOT SAYING SOMETHING but “look at me” entertaining distraction.

The sillier the better.

Like poke microphones into the soil and listen to the earthworms sleeping.

Or thermometers and feel the heat from Satan toasting deserving sinners.

Paint your self portrait in balloons, bigger the better.

So take your mind off mundane monotony.

From Jeff Koons down.

Or is that up?

As Cole Porter warned us all, Anything Goes”


Modern Liberal Values [MLV] here to stay. But are never rid of Old Identity Values [OIV]

Modern Liberal Values [MLV] – here to stay.

But are never rid of Old Identity Values [OIV]


Edith Lawrence [1890-1973] 1929, The Cricket Match, Linocut, courtesy Osborne Samuel


Can the East Save the West?, May 10, 2019 Paarag Khanna, Project Syndicate.

Asia’s emergence as the world’s geopolitical and economic center has lent global prestige to a new paradigm for achieving sustainable growth alongside social solidarity. With many other countries already studying the Asian playbook, the United States and Europe could benefit from doing the same.

[And see his book, The Future Is Asian, Parag Khanna, Simon & Schuster]


Modern Liberal Values [MLV]

The future is Asian? This is a delusional fairy story, motivated by old insecurities and wrapped in glib easy slogans, velvet phrases.

Thus Mr Khanna won’t address the bald truth, unsettling for many, that Modern Liberal Values [MLV] – liberal democracy, free speech, individual rights, independent rule of law – did not arise in Asia, the East.

Rather they emerged in the West, finally arriving meaningfully on the global stage in the wake of WW2, in Western Europe, the US and outliers like Canada and Australia, bringing unparalleled prosperity and health / longevity outcomes, despite ongoing Cold War wrangling with a Russia sadly headlocked by Old Identity Values [OIV], and now, today [since the mid 1990s] despite violent Islamism, MidEast sourced and also expression of religious OIV.

But MLV dawned after a very long and painful gestation: dogged for the West internally by calamitous “civil warfare” [comprising the 16th and 17th C religious wars and the 20th C two nationalistic world wars], and externally by extensive religious / racist Imperialism, arguably starting with the Crusades, then, from the 16th C on, throughout the Americas, Africa and Asia.

Yes MLV arose in the West, but who cares.

They are not “Western” any more than are Newton’s Laws. They are now universally available, and valid, except for champions of Old Identity Values [OIV], identities stemming especially from religion and ethno-nationalism, often interrelated, and these underwrite authoritarian, illiberal, intolerant anti-democratic power structures, starkly at odds with MLV.

It was precisely these OIV which impeded MLV emerging in the West, at a huge cost.


Asia today

As for Asia today, face the facts.

Yes its economies have grown quickly, taken advantage of large Western driven technological gains and Western-favored freer markets, but the countries by and large remain dogged, riven by Old Identity Values [OIV], if to a varying extent: much more in the case of China and the MidEast, less in India, less still in Japan, and still meaningfully in other countries like Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines.

From Mr Khanna, “initiatives like Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s war on drugs, despite the cost in lives from extrajudicial killings…”. “Initiatives” indeed, like Rambo Justice.

In 20th C Asia OIV were expressed graphically by militaristic Japan and Maoist China, at a huge cost to their – and other – peoples.

The best hope for Asia is to extend the opportunities of MLV to their peoples (as happened in postwar Japan), particularly allowing people a meaningful say in government and, secondly, through implementing effective rule of law so that no one, from peasant to President is above or beyond the law.


MLV – where from and to.

The eventual success of the West was not a technological or natural resources endowment matter but cultural, which arguably had its roots in faraway ancient Greece, when pockets of settled humankind first began to face the natural world and their society with open eyes, unencumbered by delusional spiritual / religious preconceptions.

The Roman Republic picked up the ball, until from around the 1st C BC its military success got out of hand and its burgeoning armies and their opportunistic leaders swallowed what efforts the Republic had made at fair government

After over a millennium of treading water, mainly thanks to the Christian Church having a Half Nelson on progress, the matter was finally resurrected in England, partly because Germanic tribes had migrated there, and because the English Channel helped protect the efflorescence.

Meaningful progress resumed with 17Th C Science Revolution, and the diverse faceted Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, feeding off an explosion in technological knowledge, now open ended, harnessing humankind’s competitive ambitions, curiosity.


However MLV come with neverending responsibility, roll up the sleeves involvement at all levels.

The tale of Dr Faustus, per Marlowe, Goethe and friends, is not about literally bargaining with Satan, to gain more knowledge in return for passing up the joys of everlasting life.

Rather it’s about humankind freeing itself from religious self-delusion, opening its eyes, thereby gaining full opportunity from this [only] life, embracing MLV.

However Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein then brought a warning for wide-eyed fans of MLV, was an allegorical masterpiece on humankind having to take responsibility for managing the technology its handiwork and curiosity uncovered.


So the future is not Asia, or Europe, or Timbuctoo, but MLV.


And – notwithstanding ever alluring, regressive, vengeful OIV – MLV are very likely here to stay because the genie [freedom if you want one word] is out of the bottle, because they’re universal, not “Western”, and because demonstrably they work.